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Welcome to Tom Wright’s WordPress Blog, I only started using WordPress at the beginning of 2012. I thought that it would be harder to work with, putting most of my work on the internet, but I was wrong, WordPress is great! I have suggested Wordpress to many people and everyone of them has loved it, it seems to be a great tool for letting everyone see the work that I worked so hard on to make perfect. The Armidale School should continue to use wordpress for publishing work and making it look great!
I will continue to use WordPress as it is so useful! Feel free to comment on any of my posts, I love feedback! Contact me on my email.

I also have work on Vimeo, SlideShare, Prezi & Youtube but I havent uploaded anything on Youtube.

Slavery

China 1800BC – 1910 AD Long history of slavery. Usually war captives, kidnap victims or to pay a debt. More recently enslaved anti-communists.

Slavery in China was abolished multiple times from 1909, but it was not until at least 1949 when it was stopped. [1]

South and SE Asia BC to present day. By 1841 India, Thailand and Burma had about 1/3 of the population enslaved. Slavery still continues in some forms in Asia today.

It is estimated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), that 800,000 are in slavery.[2]

Greece 1200s BC – 393AD. Mostly war captives, family members of debtors. Slave owners had complete power over slaves but couldn’t kill them. Household slaves, mine workers, agriculture, temple slaves.

It is estimated that in Athens, the majority of citizens owned at least one slave. Most ancient writers considered slavery not only natural but necessary, but some isolated debate began to appear. [3]

Rome 509BC – 476 AD. Enemies taken captive, empire built by slave labour, eventually more than slaves than freemen, no rights. Lead to slave revolts – most famous Spartacus.

For entertainment, the weak slaves, not useful to to the slave trade fought against various animals in an arena. Central America 1516 – 1880. Stopped using Native Americans as slaves. Used Africans instead esp. in gold and silver mines. Slaves numbered in the millions. More than in North America.

Central America 1516 – 1880. Stopped using Native Americans as slaves. Used Africans instead esp. in gold and silver mines. Slaves numbered in the millions. More than in North America.

During the arrival of the Spaniards in Central America, the Mayans were starting to collapse and there weren’t many Native American slaves available. Many African slaves arrived in Panama to help build the Panama Canal and in Guatemala, Honduras (including Belize), Nicaragua and Costa Rica to work in the banana and sugar-cane plantations.[5]

Britain 1619-1833 Slave traders sent many Africans to English, French and Spanish colonies in the Americas. Made the British economy strong and helped to fund the Industrial Revolution. Slavery ended in England in 1772, British slave trade stopped 1807, and colonial slavery ended 1833. More on this aspect later.

Slaves were transported from around the world to Britain in the slave trade. Slavery in the British Isles dated from before Roman occupation. Chattel slavery virtually disappeared after the Norman Conquest. It was finally abolished by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.[6]

Caribbean mid 1700s. Sugar plantation slaves. By mid 1700s, 100,000 Africans imported/year. Many rebellions put down but one successful one led to the start of the Republic of Haiti.

As of 1778, the French were importing approximately 13,000 Africans for enslavement to the French West Indies. With the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, the new British colony of Trinidad was left with a severe shortage of labour. This shortage became worse after the abolition of slavery in 1833. To deal with this problem, Trinidad imported indentured servants from the 1830s until 1917.[7]

North America 1865. Some slavery among native Indians. Europeans enslaved Africans mostly to work on cotton plantations in the southern states. By 1860 there were 4 million slaves in America. Slaves were property of owners, even to the point of life or death. The Civil War was fought partly on this issue. Source: Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.

Although the international slave trade was prohibited from 1808, internal slave-trading continued apace, and the slave population would eventually peak at four million before abolition. Of all 1,515,605 free families in the fifteen slave states in 1860, nearly 400,000 held slaves (roughly one in four, or 25%), amounting to 8% of all American families.[8]

Germany 1942 – 1945. Jews, communists, Gypsies, socialists, POWs and many other groups not liked by Nazi Party enslaved in concentration camps. Forced labour in factories. The weak were killed. By end of war 700,000 were in these camps.

During World War II (The Holocaust), the Germans used slave labor from across occupied Europe to support their war effort, and numbering perhaps 6 million people.[9]

[1] “Slavery in China – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2009. 11 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_China>
[2] “History of slavery in Asia – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2012. 11 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_Asia>
[3] ”Slavery in ancient Greece – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2006. 16 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_ancient_Greece>
[4]“Slavery in Latin America – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2013. 16 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Latin_America>
[5] ”Slavery in the British Isles – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2012. 16 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_the_British_Isles>

[6]“Slavery in the British and French Caribbean – Wikipedia, the free …” 2005. 16 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_the_British_and_French_Caribbean>

[7]“Slavery in the United States – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2004. 16 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_the_United_States>

[8]“History of slavery – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2006. 16 Oct. 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery>

Science Prep – 13/9/13

Coal:

  1. Non-renewable energy is defined as a finite way to produce energy to support human growth for an in-finite amount of time.
  2. Coal is usually located deep underground, this is because coal I made by organic material being compressed and heated by the earth. Coal is often in the places that were (millions of years ago) full of plant life.
  3. Coal is found all over Australia, it is the most popular non-renewable energy forms in Australia, followed by oil, this means that it is quite valuable, meaning that companies are looking for it.
  4. Some of the advantages of coal are:
    1. It is easily transported
    2. Inexpensive
    3. Burns at low temperatures
    4. Simple to mine
  5. Some of the disadvantages of coal are:
    1. It must be mined, which ruins the environment
    2. Burning it produces harmful smoke
    3. Fast depleting
    4. It cannot be recycled
    5. It leaves behind harmful by-products
  6. Screen Shot 2013-10-08 at 9.07.19 AM

History Colonisation – 18/9/13

Q) Do you think that the Indigenous population were treated fairly in Australia during colonisation? You must justify your answer with examples. (75 words)
A) The Aboriginals were not treated fairly during Australia’s colonisation by the English. This is shown by the fact that the English had no regard for the Aboriginal land and property. Aboriginals were also treated as lesser humans by the British because they did not have the power that the English had. The English also exploited the Aboriginals when they captured them and used a large amount as slaves for their crops.

Q) What similarities have your discovered between Australia’s colonisation and that of the Aztecs and Incas? (75 words)
A) Some of the similarities between Australia’s colonisation and the Aztecs and Incas are that neither of the colonisations were done peacefully, they both involved one nation being more powerful than another. Also the weapons used in fighting were similar, with the Spanish and English having advanced guns and iron armour and the Australians, Aztecs and Incas had primitive wooden spears and shields. In all cases the colonising civilisation was far more powerful than the original civilisation.

Q) What differences have you discovered between Australia’s colonisation and that of the Aztecs and Incas? (75 words)
A) When the Spanish colonised the Inca civilisation, they tricked the Incas into coming into an area when the Conquistadors could trap, and kill the incas. This did not happen when the English colonised the Aboriginals. Also, the aboriginals did not have many permanent structures whereas the Aztecs and Incas did have permanent structures in which they lived. This meant that the Spanish were able to plan their fights more easily because the knew where the people would be.

Q) Do you think that Australia has problems today, because of the way in which the country was colonised? It is important that you justify your answer. (75 words)
A) Yes, he way Australia was colonised has caused problems for the Aboriginal community today in the way that they are still experiencing discrimination. This can be shown in the way that it is often harder of Aboriginals to get jobs or get some basic services. If Aboriginals were regarded as equals when Australia was colonised by the English, things may have been very different in the way of rights.

Q) In many instances colonisation was quite a drastic and violent process. Despite this do you think that it was an important process which was inevitable? (75 words)
A) I think that colonisation does not always have to be violent, but, often it is what happens. One of the two competing civilizations will have more power (or allies) than the other, so it will conquer it, leaving it open for the victor civilisation to colonise it. This is the most common way for a country to be colonised, so if it happens today it is inevitable that if a country is to be colonised it will happen the same way.

Electron Shell Answers

Questions

Electron Shells:

Define the term ‘energy levels’.

Energy levels or shells are imaginary lines circling the nucleus, these lines are what electros travel on.

Identify the number of electrons each shell normally holds.

The number of electrons on each shell varies on the shell level. The number of electrons on each shell gets progressively bigger, the sequence from the inner shell to the outer is 2; 8; 18(or 8); 32(or 8).

Electronic configuration:

Clarify what the electronic configuration of an atom shows.

Depending on how many electrons the atom has, the electronic configuration is different. If an atom has 10 electrons like neon, 2 fit into the first shell, 8 in the next. This would be written as 2,8.

Describe the electronic configuration of magnesium.

Magnesium has 12 electrons, so 2 are able to go into the first shell, 8 in the next, and then 2. Making an electronic configuration of 2,8,2

Periods, groups and electrons:

Describe what the following have in common:

Atoms in the same group

They have the same number of electrons on the outer shell (helium is an exception with 2 rather than 8)

Atoms in the same period

Atoms in the same period have the same number of shells

Atoms that react and atoms that don’t:

Identify which group contains elements that rarely react.

The group that contains the noble gasses is the group VIII

Distinguish between atoms that react and atoms that don’t react.

All the atoms that are nobel have the outer shell ending with 8 electrons. The Noble gases are helium, neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn), these gases do not react but all the others do.

Ions:

Compare a chlorine atom with a chloride ion.

A chlorine atom has an electronic configuration of 2,8,7 so when it becomes an ion, it gains one electron changing it’s electronic configuration to 2,8,8 making it negative.

Describe what happens when a sodium ion forms.

A sodium atom has an electronic configuration of 2,8,1 so when it becomes an ion, it loses one electron changing it’s electronic configuration to 2,8 making it positive.

Explain the difference between the formation of a positive ion and a negative ion. Use a diagram to clarify your answer.

When an atom turned into an ion and becomes positive, it loses an electron to another source and when the atom turned into an ion and becomes negative, it gains an electron.

Identify three positive and three negative ions by name and symbol.

?

Think:

Explain why noble gases do not form ions.

Noble gases do not form ions because they do not react with any other element

Sodium chloride has charges but no overall charge. Explain.

Sodium chloride has no overall charge because its two ions are either losing or gaining an electron, making it equal.

Identify the period and group these atoms belong to:

an atom with configuration 2,4

Period 2, IV

an atom with configuration 2,8,6

Period 3, VI

an atom with seven electrons

Period 2, V

an atom with 15 electrons

Period 3, V

Ca

Period 4, II

Ne

Period 2, VIII

Write the electronic configuration of these atoms.

an atom in Period 2, Group VI

2,6

an atom in Period 3, Group VIII

2,8,8

an atom in Period 1, Group VIII (be careful)

2

an atom of Mg

282

an atom of S

286

Bennelong

November 1789

Today was most peculiar, I woke up as usual cleaned up my area then I decided to go hunting. As I ran around, spear in hand, I heard a strange sound, I decided to investigate. When I got to the source of the sound, I noticed is was the new people that everyone had been talking about. I decided to get closer, to get a better look. While I was moving closer, I was seen by one of the men staying in the white man’s camp. He ran after me, and eventually captured me. I was brought back to their camp, I was sure they were going to kill me. When I got to a big tent, I saw that Colbee, another person from from where I come from, had also been captured. Surprisingly, I was not killed by these men, but they did not let me go. Colbee managed to escape back to our camp, but I stayed, I saw no point in trying to escape for I knew I would be re-captured. Anyway, I was being treated well and I was learning a new language, I believe the men are called ‘British’ and they want to ‘colonise’ our home, I am yet to work out what this means.

Decomposition of Copper Carbonate

Aim:

To examine & test the products of decomposition of copper carbonate

Prediction:

The chemical formula for copper carbonate is Cu CO3 of copper carbonate

Materials:

  • Sidearm test tube
  • Test tube (medium)
  • Rubber tubing
  • Calcium Hydroxide (limewater)
  • Bunsen burner + matches + heatproof mat
  • Copper carbonate
  • Metal spoon
  • Test tube holder

Risk Assessment:

 

Risk Management
Burns firm bunsen burner Do not put limbs near the bunsen burner
Test tube exploding with copper carbonate held within Pick a high quality test tube
Copper hydroxide in eye Wear glasses when near test
Rubber bung can blow off T.T. Hold the sidearm T.T. Towards the wall

Method:

  1. Set up experiment as follows:
    Photo on 2-09-13 at 9.35 AM
  2. Heat the copper carbonate strongly & observe what occurs in the second T.T.
  3. Stop heating when the copper carbonate has completely changed colour. Take photos of the results
  4. Analyse what occurred with chemical equations.Photo on 2-09-13 at 10.02 AM

Results:

Photo on 2-09-13 at 10.08 AM